The Ceiba de Colón is a historical tree located near the mouth of the Río Ozama. Legend states that this is where Christopher Columbus moored his ship the Santa María when he first arrived in the Americas.
The trunk of the Ceiba de Colón, mostly covered in cement now, has been protected throughout history. The Dominican people tried to keep the tree upright and alive as long as possible. But, as all trees do, it just got old. The trunk began to split, become hollow and finally, the tree fell. All that remains of that tree is cement and stone that were used to cover the original tree trunk.
Today there is another Ceiba tree growing next to the original cement covered trunk. It is said to be there to protect the original tree. Akin to a daughter, with its arms outstretched, covering and protecting the elderly mother from all the world’s troubles.
About The Ceiba
The Ceiba tree throughout the history of the world has been shrouded in many myths and legends. It is said the roots of this ancient tree can reach to the deepest parts of the underworld and also represents the terrestrial realms. In Mayan mythology, the Ceiba, or tree of life, is said to hold up the sky. It is the national tree of Guatemala. It is a common tree found in warm, tropical regions. The Ceiba can grow to be very tall and its branches form a huge shady canopy.
Near Puerta de las Atarazanas and Avenida del Puerto (Av. Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deño). It is easily spotted when entering the Colonial Zone from the Puente Flotante. Walking, go north from Calle el Conde past Plaza España, down the stairs. Continue walking along the wall of the original city up Calle Atarazanas. Walk to a small Plaza at The Fuerte de la Carena and Fuerte de Angulo, where the road ends. Look over the wall at the cannon and you will see the cement covered stump standing all alone.
Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England in either 1541 or 1542. He was the son of Edmund Drake, a farmer later turned preacher.
The Drake family fled to Kent during the Roman Catholic uprising of 1549. When Francis, the second son in a large family, was 13 he went to sea on a cargo barge. By the time he was 20 he became master of the ship.
When the captain of the ship died Drake assumed command making his first sail to the new world when he was 23. He was involved in some of the first English slave trade expeditions. Loved by Queen Elizabeth 1, Drake went on to become one of the most famous men in Elizabethan times. As a sailor, adventurer, navigator, politician, engineer and landowner, he was a legend in his own lifetime.
Sir John Hawkins, a cousin of Drake, was given permission from Queen Elizabeth to make his first voyage in 1562. Drake accompanied him on this voyage. Hawkins was to bring Africans to the Americas under their own free will. He agreed to this condition but did not do as he said. He captured the Africans, promising them free land and riches in the new world. Then he sold most of the slaves in what is now known as the Dominican Republic. Then Hawkins returned home with a large profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Thus began the British slave trade.
When the ship Hawkins manned returned to England Queen Elizabeth was horrified. She said that what he did was detestable and it would call down vengeance from heaven upon all who took part. But, after she saw the money that could be made, she joined in a partnership with Hawkins and even gave him his a new ship called Jesus of Lubeck, also known as The Good Ship Jesus.
It is very ironic that Drakes’ cousin and Drake himself were considered to be very religious men. Hawkins required his crew to serve God and to love one another. Drake held services on board his ship twice a day.
I cannot understand this, it was OK for him to lie, cheat and steal. Taking the African people by their lies and false promises. Stealing the belongings of others. And they still considered themselves to be religious.
In 1577 Queen Elizabeth I commissioned three men to sail around the world. On November 15, 1577. The Queen’s Corsair consisting of the captains Sir Francis Drake (whom she called lovingly, “my dear pirate”), John Winter, and Thomas Doughty set sail on their voyages.
In time Drake became the leader of the group. He was to attack all Spanish settlements. Drake sailed to America with 40 ships and more than 2,000 soldiers. He attacked the Spanish ports throughout the Caribbean.
Drake sailed his ship “The Golden Hind” on December 13, 1577. Francis Drake became the second man to sail around the world and the first Englishman to accomplish this feat on September 26, 1580.
Upon Drakes return to England he presented the queen a very large bounty. Now she really loved her “dear pirate”.
On April 4, 1581 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth on the deck of the Golden Hind. This act gave Francis Drake a title. He became Sir Francis Drake, mayor of Plymouth and a Parliament member. The Queen also presented him with a special sword. Because of all the attention she paid to Drake others followed in his footsteps and became privateers also.
Francis Drake hated the Spaniards and their Catholic religion, probably having to do with his families flight from their home when he was young. He devoted his life to fighting against the Spanish and all they controlled. They called him a pirate but England called him a sailor and privateer.
January 1586 Sir Francis Drake landed at the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo bringing the entire city to its knees. His invasion and demolition weakened the Spanish dominion over the island.
For more than 50 years everything in the colony was abandoned and left to the mercy of the pirates. Drake drove the Spanish garrison out of Santo Domingo. He burned the city methodically, piece by piece until he received a ransom of 30,000 crowns. The amount he wanted was much more but he settled on this ransom. It is also told that the people of Santo Domingo gave him all their treasures. After much persuasion by the towns people, and when there was nothing else to take, Drake left the ruined city.
The church Santa María, the first church in the new world, was ransacked and burnt. Treasures were stolen and records burnt. The graveyard behind the chapel and its records were destroyed also. This left no records of the people who were interred there. The San Francisco Monastery was also significantly damaged in Drakes 1568 invasion on the city.
After Drakes invasion on Santo Domingo, he moved on to Cartagena (now known as Columbia) and St. Augustine (in Florida, USA). The war between England and Spain started because of these terrible acts of piracy.
Drake sailed directly west from Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands off the coast of West Africa. The first port Drake reached in the West Indies was Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, present-day Haiti and Dominican Republic. This image shows the English fleet in the bay, and the infantry battalions attacking the town. This map represents the first printed view of this locality.
Sir Francis Drake returned to England, got married and lived on a large estate outside of London. On January 28, 1596, he died aboard his ship the Defiance. He was struck by a tropical disease that he probably picked up during his last trip to the Americas. He died and was buried at sea. It was said that he got out of his deathbed early the morning of his death and tried to put on his suit of armor. He wanted to die as a soldier.
Sir Francis Drake died of dysentery when he was about 55. He was buried at sea in a lead coffin off Puerto Bello to the sound of trumpets and cannons.
*There were many different types and classes of what we clump together as pirates now.
– Pirate is a robber and destroyer of ships at sea.
– Buccaneer was originally an inhabitant of Hispaniola. The name coming from a Taino word boucan or barbecue. Because these people were said to prepare their meat in this manner they were originally called boucaniers.
– Privateer was a privately owned ship and crew hired by a national government during wartime to plunder the ships of an enemy nation.
– Corsair was a Mediterranean pirate of the 16th century.
*The Golden Age of Piracy came about soon after the discovery of the New World and continued for about 250 years.
*When the Pope divided the New World between Spain and Portugal in 1494 the other European nations were not very happy. They wanted some of the stolen Aztec gold also. War was a given.
*The New World coast from South America through the Caribbean to Northern Florida was known as “The Spanish Main”.
*In 1630 a treaty was signed with Spain enabling the English and French to colonize some of the lands along the Spanish Main.
*One of the main sources of food the settlers consumed on the island of Hispaniola was the wild pigs originally introduced by the Spanish. The pigs were barbecued on open fires called buccans or boucan. This is how the settlers got the title buccaneers.
*The Spanish were getting a little nervous because of all the buccaneers on Hispaniola. They sent hunters to kill all the pigs which in turn made the buccaneers turn to piracy because their food source was gone. Later Spain realized they made a dire mistake.
*Many of the buccaneers (they called themselves Brethren of the Coast) moved on to a new island named Tortuga/ Turtle. It is located off the coast on the Haitian side of the island. This island became a sanctuary for the Buccaneers because of its perfect habitat and location.
*Not all pirates were fierce outlaws. Many were just sailors trying to make a living the only way they were able.
*Many things about how the ship would be run was agreed upon by all before the ship left port. They decided where to sail, how the bounty would be divided (usually the most going to the captain, then the skilled labor on the ship and the least amounts going to the laborers), and who would be captain.
*Sir Francis Drake introduced pipe smoking to Elizabethan age of England.
*Drake named Virginia in United States after Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen
Other famous pirates I found that visited the Santo Domingo colony included
*Blackbeard – (Edward Thatch or Teach) Samana Bay in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) in 1718?
*William Kidd, also known as The Unlucky Pirate.
*Sir Henry Morgan, also known as The Pirate King (1654 in Hispaniola)
Francisco de Bobadilla was born in Spain around 1450. He became a nobleman who served fighting against the Moors when Spain retook their country. His title was Francisco de Bobadilla, Chevalier and Knight. Commander of the Royal Order of Calatrava. Because of his title and service he was favored by the royal family.
Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) was the governor of the island at this time. He ruled along with his brothers, Bartholomew and Giacomo (also called Diego).
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were hearing many complaints about what was happening in Hispaniola. The Queen sent Bobadilla to the new colony to check up on the Columbus boys. She wanted him to find out what was happening first hand. In 1499, because of all the bad reports, the Queen appointed Bobadilla to succeed Diego Columbus as the second governor of the Indies.
Bobadilla arrived in the colonies in 1500 to take over. When he found out exactly what the brothers Columbus were up to Bobadilla took action. He took it upon himself and had Columbus and his brothers captured. He confiscated all their goods and belongings and had it all sent back to Spain. The Columbus men were also returned to Spain bound in chains.
The Queen became angry because she didn’t order these actions. In 1502 Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres replaced Bobadilla as governor of Hispaniola. The Queen sent for Bobadilla to return immediately to answer to her.
The second governor of the colony never made it back to Spain. He never got to face the wrath of the Queen. Francisco de Bobadilla died July 11, 1502 in the Atlantic Ocean during a hurricane in the Mona Passage while making his return. The storm wrecked most of the 31-ship convoy including the ship that contained the dethroned governor.
Some interesting items
*It is thought that Columbus had an affair with Bobadillas’ niece, Eleanora de Bobadilla. She was married to Alfonso de Lugo, the Governor of all the Canary Islands. Columbus made many stops to the island to restock his supplies whilst sailing the islands. Maybe he did a little more than only restocking?