Category Archives: HISTORY

Diego Colón

Diego Colón (Columbus) 1480 – 1526

Diego Colón

Diego Colón was the first born son of Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colón). He was thought to have been born in Lisbon or Porto Santo, Portugal. Felipa Perestrello e Moniz, Diego’s mother, died when he was 4 years old.

From a very young age Diego belonged to the Spanish court as page of the prince Don Juan and later he was a page to the queen.

Diego married Maria de Toledo in 1508. María de Toledo y Rojas o María Álvarez de Toledo was the Granddaughter of the First Duke of Alba, Niece of the Second Duke of Alba, Cousin of King Ferdinand II of Aragón El Católico, and Great-Niece of the Catholic Kings. Because she was of noble lineage and her family had much influence in the Spanish court, this allowed Diego to obtain official recognition and thus granted him many privileges.

Governor of the Indies

In 1509 Diego Columbus was named Governor of the Indies when he arrived in Hispaniola to replace Nicholas de Ovando. He was accompanied by his wife, uncles, their brother Fernando and a large following.

During the government of Diego Columbus in Hispaniola Cuba, Puerto Rico and Jamaica were also conquered by the Spanish.

Alcazar de Colon – Home of Don Diego Colón

As soon as Diego settled in the colony and built his residence, The Columbus Palace/ Alcazar de Colon, he began to grant privileges to the people who arrived with him. All were given homes and property and many were granted seats in the government. This favoritism caused much discourse among many residents of the island. These residents complained before the court and demanded better treatment by the Governor. Fed up with the special treatment Miguel de Pasamonte, the Treasurer formed a group called The Servants of the King. They formed to oppose the governing group. To stop the fighting between the two groups the monarch created the Real Audience, a court that reduced the powers of the governor.

One of the many problems that confronted the Governor was how the Dominican priests defended the Indians. The defense of the Indians was initiated by Fray Antón de Montecinos. He gave a sermon that demanded better treatment for the natives. The governor and other authorities were all present when Montecinos made his famous speech in 1511. Montecinos was made Viceroy of the Indies in May 1511, remaining in charge until 1518.

Diego Returns to Spain

The many conflicts in Hispaniola forced the king to replace Diego Columbus and he returned to Spain. After being in Spain for a few years he again gained the favor of the king. Diego returned to his governorship in 1520.

Two years later the first rise of the black slaves took place. This new government was calmer than the previous one. Still King Carlos V finally suspended, for the second time, the son of Christopher Columbus from the government of Hispaniola.

Columbus returned to Spain in 1523. According to the capitulations of Santa Fe that were signed by Columbus and Catholic Kings, all the titles that were granted to Christopher would be inherited by Diego. Yet, when Diego died in 1526 he never got the promised recognition of the inherited rights that were promised to him by his father.

James Logan Journey 1838

Notes of a journey through Canada, USA, and the West Indies.

By James Logan, advocate, of Edinburgh.
Created/Published: Edinburgh [etc.] Fraser and co., 1838.
Digital ID: lhbtn 26860 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/lhbtn.26860

These are excerpts taken from this document of the notes that were written about Santo Domingo. It is so interesting to read the views of the writer at this time. It seems that Port-a-Prince (Haiti) was the largest town on the island at this time and much more cosmopolitan. (To read the entire 259 page document refer to the link above.)

CHAPTER IX. JAMAICA.
(page 217)
On our coming in sight of St Domingo, a gentleman, a Mr P., on board the schooner, who had been resident some time there engaged in mercantile pursuits, gave me the following account of it:–This island, now the centre towards which all the eyes of Europe are turned, as developing the working of a republic of black population, has not come up to the expectations of the speculator on the system of precipitate emancipation. The Negroes of St Domingo or Hayti, about forty years ago, expelled their masters, the French and Spaniards, from the island, and after several leaders had ruled different divisions, and been successively put down, one of them, Christophe, a Negro from an English island, and who had been a servant in the town of Cape Hayti, governed for several years the northern division of the island, of which Cape Hayti is the capital.


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(page 218) At one time the most productive island in the West Indies, it is now amongst the least, though the population is considerably increased. No reasonable man sends his coat to the carpenter to be mended; he knows that a carpenter is not a tailor, his trade is quite distinct; before the carpenter can profess the trade of a tailor, he must serve an apprenticeship to the latter, that he may be fitted for the trade, Again, boys and girls are not fitted for the work of, men and women, they require experience and practice; and is not the Negro’s an analogous case? Unmercifully torn from his home and friends, treated like a dog, generally compelled to a labour he never before heard of, to

(page 219) adopt customs and views totally foreign to his nature, is it to be supposed that he works willingly, or that he has any desire to learn? It can only be time that will modify his mind and practice, and bend him to his situation, and, combined with other causes, may ultimately stimulate him to exertion for himself. To set him free at once, is analogous to opening the door of a prison to let loose the hundred criminals, who, as experience has shown us, generally return to their old habits. Here lie the difficulties even the rulers of this republic have to contend with; and what have the other islands not to contend with?

West Indies Map-James Logan Journey

St Domingo is, in point of size, next to Cuba, and is very mountainous. The plains are fertile, and have yielded abundant crops of sugar, coffee, rice, tobacco, &c. The northern parts of the island are most healthy, being exposed to more regular sea breezes from the Atlantic, which in winter are sometimes so cold as to render a fire necessary. The principal produce of the island for exportation is coffee, cotton, tobacco, and cigars, to which may be added mahogany and logwood. Rice, which, in the time of the French, formed one of the principal articles of export, is now largely imported for the use of the inhabitants, and in 1836 very considerable quantities of East India rice were even imported from Liverpool. Although at one time as much sugar was made here as on all the other West India islands together, now barely sufficient for their own use is raised. The imports consist principally of British, German, and French linens, (page 220) cottons, cloth, silk, and hardware and cutlery, with American flour, salt fish, and lumber.

The population is supposed to be about 700,000, seven-tenths of whom are entirely black. The French language is used in all the legislative proceedings, though Spanish is the prevalent language in that part of the island formerly called Hispaniola.

Port-au-Prince is said to be the most populous town in the island, having nearly 22,000 inhabitants, and at which a great proportion of the foreign trade of the island is carried on. Here the President Boyer resides. The town has a pretty appearance from the harbour, but is very irregularly built, the houses of wood principally, though some of the merchants have both stores and houses of brick. These materials are better suited to the climate, there being less expense and danger to be apprehended from earthquakes, shocks of which are of frequent occurrence, and sometimes very injurious to property. The town is situated in the beautiful bay of the same name on the west side of the island.

The story continues on…..
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Taken from the Library of Congress – American Memory
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/lhtnhtml/lhtnhome.html

Edouard Montule Voyage 1817

A voyage to North America, and the West Indies in 1817 / By Édouard de Montulé (Also titled as: Voyage to North America, the West Indies, and the Mediterranean)

Created/Published: London : Printed for Sir R. Phillips and Co., 1821.
Digital ID: lhbtn 28057 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/lhbtn.28057 American Notes: Travels in America, 1750-1920

Title page:A VOYAGE TO NORTH AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES, IN 1817. BY E. MONTULE. KNIGHT OF THE ROYAL ORDER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR. AUTHOR OF TRAVELS IN EGYPT, &C. Library of Congress 1867 City of Washington PRINTED FOR SIR RICHARD PHILLIPS AND Co.BRIDE COURT, BRIDGE STREET 1821

I will include excerpts of the document that pertains to Dominican Republic or things that I feel are of interest to my web site viewers and bold the things I really enjoy (to read the entire 102 page document click the link above). The voyage seems to start and end in New York. Starting on November 8, 1816 and ending on October 5, 1817. In his description of New York he seemed to really like the city according to what I read. It is interesting to note that he said one did not need a passport or documentation to enter the city.

The highlights of the document are where Édouard de Montulé writes about what he sees in his first visit to the Island. Included is a description of a cock fight, the way women look and behave, about the “lazy inhabitants” (maybe they are this way because of the heat). He describes the wooded areas, the birds he does not recognize, mosquitoes, a cave, mountains and rivers, different palm trees and fruits (bananas, coconuts, pineapple and more..). He describes how a house looked and how several “negros” were singing songs of the Congo and pounding a poisonous root to make cakes they serve as bread (casabe). He wrote about the tower where Columbus lived and how it was the “first European edifice erected on American soil.” Also about running into pirates when leaving the island.

The beginning of the Dominican Republic information starts on Page 19 – From St. Domingo, the 15th February 1817.
LETTER V.

Here are some of my favorite excerpts:

(page 20) The town of Santo Domingo is large, and built of stone, and the streets are, generally speaking, in direct lines; the cathedral might pass for a noble edifice in any country; in it is preserved the anchor of Columbus’s ship, together with his portrait, whose resemblance to that of the great man who has so recently filled the universe with his name, must appear striking to every observer. The place is surrounded by a pretty good fortification; some hills command it on one side, and it has recently been strengthened by a trench.
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Santo Domingo, the 26th February 1817. LETTER VI.

Santo Domingo is regularly enough built, and, generally speaking, handsome; the national or citizen guard performs duty well, but the colony is in so declining a state that it is painful to witness. The governor of Western Spain formerly resided at Santo Domingo, but that vice-royalty has long been removed to Vera Cruz.
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The Spaniard’s great delight consists in passing the day in idleness, his principal labor being reduced to drinking, eating, sleeping, and frequenting the churches, which are numerous: all this, however, does not prevent the two sexes from abandoning themselves to those passions which a burning climate creates and maintains. Every one on rising, at about five o’clock, takes a cup of black coffee, this being a general custom in the colonies; after which they repair to the public promenade. The ladies, habited in black, whereon the whiteness of the linen and lace contrasts agreeably, are at that hour usually unaccompanied; it is not however uncommon to see them accosted, or even escorted by priests; they are in general good looking, but precisely in the costume of Bazil, in the Marriage of Figaro. After this walk, and paying some visits to churches, they return home, there to remain till sun-set. At the moment when the oratio, or angelus bell rings, (no matter how distant from the pealing sound) you are bound to stop short; at least you must take off your hat, and fall upon your knees; this is a pious act which admits of no exception. In a more populous Spanish city, the sudden stoppage of an whole moving multitude, must appear very extraordinary; since it so forcibly struck me in the depopulated streets of Santo Domingo.

The women are not, strictly speaking, handsome, they are small, but well made; and their complexion, somewhat brown, is not unbecoming, but the sparkling vivacity of their eyes, and their whole physiognomy, conveys an expression of their internal thoughts and feelings.

Some time after my excursion to Nissas, passing along Commerce Street, one of the finest of the town, I saw a great crowd at the door of a house, and was informed by M. La Coste, the French physician, that the persons so assembled were waiting to witness the cock fights; that I might enter if I thought fit, that he himself often resorted there, and was fortunate in betting.

Accordingly I went in, having never witnessed a similar spectacle, of which the Spaniards here are very great amateurs. This cruel sport takes place in a species of theatre, the roof and columns of which are not unlike the covering and pillars of a cottage decorating a garden in the English style. The stairs conducting to the first tier!–You are doubtless astonished!! but really there are first places–formed like a ladder, which would well become a hen-house; be this as it may, persons of the highest ton honour this place with their presence, and bet for the black or white cock, from one, two, or three hundred piasters, up (page24) to two thousand francs, or eighty pound. The cocks have no steel spurs as in England, but nature has armed them with double spurs, at least compared with those of France, and care is taken to render them very sharp. These birds come from the island of Porto Rico, and are sold at very high prices, according to their strength and courage.

When the two cocks equally fatigued retire to the extreme verge of the arena, their respective masters excite them; each taking his bird, puts its bleeding head into his mouth, as if intending to devour it, at the same time passing his hand under the tail, he rubs it with an aspect so truly serious and comic, that I believe no physiognomy save that of a Spaniard could support the expression. The combat then recommences, and terminates only with the death of one of the champions. The day I was present, two cocks not fighting well, their masters seized them spontaneously, and killed them by dashing them vehemently to the ground. Not being tempted to bet, I retired, reflecting on the instantaneous fury with which those birds are seized; which led me to make some comparisons not very honourable to humanity; these, however, I shall keep to myself.
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We passed by an habitation, where several negroes, singing songs of Congo, were pounding the root of the manioc, from which they make cakes that serve for bread. They worked with unparalleled ardor, and did not seem to perceive the sweat which channelled down their ebony limbs. This root if not undried would be a poison; but as it could not then be scraped, the use of it is not so dangerous as might be imagined.
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The island of St. Domingo, and particularly that part in possession of the Spaniards, has gold mines, which are no longer worked; it is even stated that they are lost: they might, however, easily be found, since upon the banks of some rivers negroes are occupied in collecting the gold-dust. (page 29) The centre of the island being occupied by mountains, which in all directions descend to the sea, in hills, or verdant plots, called Mornes, it may be conceived that there are many rivers. The Ozama, upon the right bank of which St. Domingo is situated, is large and deep; the whole island is naturally divided into three parts, by the mountains; a circumstance which greatly tends to diminish any apprehensions from the Negroes and the Mulattos.